Estreno mundial en Dresde de una Sinfonía concertante inconclusa de Mozart





Toda la Música | Estreno mundial en Dresde de una Sinfonía concertante inconclusa de Mozart

La inconclusa Sinfonía concertante en la mayor para violín, viola, violonchelo y orquesta de Wolfgang Amadé Mozart (1756 – 1791), completada y adaptada por el compositor británico de origen chino Jeffrey Ching, ha sido estrenada mundialmente por la Sächsische Staatskapelle de Dresde, dirigida por Mijail Jurowski (invitado), en un extraordinario concierto con motivo del 469º aniversario de la fundación de esta célebre agrupación orquestal alemana.

El programa del concierto fue integrado además con obras de Arvo Pärt (1935), Festine lente, para orquesta de cuerdas y arpa; y de Franz Schubert (1797 – 1828), Sinfonía número 7, en si menor, D759.

La Sächsische Staatskapelle de Dresde, cuyo director principal es desde 2012 Christian Thielemann, fue fundada el 22 de septiembre de 1548 por el compositor y maestro cantor Johann Walter (1496 – 1570), por encargo del príncipe elector Mauricio de Sajonia (1521 – 1553), y es considerada una de las más antiguas del mundo, en actividad ininterrumpida desde entonces, y una de las más importantes asimismo en cada una de las épocas a las que perteneció.

Toda la Música | Estreno mundial en Dresde de una Sinfonía concertante inconclusa de Mozart
Sächsische Staatskapelle de Dresde

Jeffrey Ching (Manila, 1965), formado en las universidades de Harvard, Cambridge y Londres, ha alcanzado notoriedad en Alemania desde la première de su ópera Das Waisenkind (El huérfano), con la intervención de la soprano Andión Fernández, en el Teatro de Erfurt (capital de Turingia) y galardonada con el Premio del Público 2009/2010; así como por Incantation, una obra ejecutada en noviembre de 2013, por separado pero simultáneamente, en dos ciudades del estado federado de Sajonia-Anhalt, Dessau y Magdeburgo, y transmitida en directo por las emisoras Deutschlandradio Kultur  y MDR Figaro.

Toda la Música | Estreno mundial en Dresde de una Sinfonía concertante inconclusa de Mozart
Toda la Música | Estreno mundial en Dresde de una Sinfonía concertante inconclusa de Mozart

Ahora el polifacético creador británico, residente en Berlín desde hace una década, ha completado y ensamblado dos fragmentos y un Adagio de Mozart en un triple concierto. Sus movimientos: 1. Allegro KV Anh. 104 (320º); 2. Adagio en mi mayor KV 261; y 3. (Rondo. Allegro) KV Anh. 72 (464º). Intérpretes del estreno fueron los solistas Matthias Wollong (violín), Sebastian Herberg (viola) y Norbert Anger (violonchelo), con la Sächsische Staatskapelle Dresden.

Toda la Música | Estreno mundial en Dresde de una Sinfonía concertante inconclusa de Mozart
El compositor Jeffrey Ching

En el preámbulo de la partitura, Ching explica (en inglés) cómo ha cubierto el vacío entre el material existente y el faltante y cómo ha hecho para mantenerse muy próximo al genial maestro austríaco del clasicismo y uno de los músicos más influyentes de la historia. Por considerarlo de gran interés para los lectores, reproducimos aquí íntegramente la descripción que él mismo hace de su labor:

“Mozart left 134 bars of a projected sinfonia concertante for solo violin, solo viola, solo cello, two oboes, two horns, and strings, generally ascribed by musicologists to Salzburg, summer/early autumn 1779. The first 51 bars of the opening Allegro are fully scored, but for the remaining 83 bars only the solo parts are written out, with the orchestration sporadically filled in or hinted at. There is no extant material for a second or third movement. Just before the point at which the first movement breaks off, a beautiful new theme (unharmonised in the fragment) is introduced by the solo violin and then repeated (also unharmonised) by the solo viola in the same key but slightly varied. This gives sufficient hint of the direction the ensuing section was meant to take: It would be based predominantly on this new theme and somewhat vary it; the solo cello must have its turn with the theme; but obviously the repetition, variation, and development of the theme would periodically change key (because the expository function served by its remaining in the same key was already fulfilled by the violin and the viola). Thereafter the recapitulation of Mozart’s original material is relatively straightforward, except for the freshly composed three-part cadenza, which both elaborates a little used motif from the orchestral ritornello, and gives a final airing to the beautiful theme with which the fragment ends.

The isolated Adagio in E major, KV 261, for solo violin, two flutes, two horns, and strings, is a finished composition by Mozart, complete in all details, and possibly written as an alternative slow movement to the famous A major violin concerto (the “Turkish”), KV 219. For the purposes of the present completion, it happens to have the right key and provenance (Salzburg, 1776—the place and time-period (1775-1779) of the four later violin concertos, the Sinfonia Concertante for violin and viola, KV 364, and indeed the present first movement fragment), the solo violin material only needing some creative adaptation to fill three solo parts. As for what might seem an anomalous switch of timbre from oboes to flutes between movements, this is in fact a well-attested Mozartean practice (e.g. the G major violin concerto, KV 218) exploiting the versatility of eighteenth-century woodwind players, with the advantage that in the context of twenty-first performance practice it also makes both flutes and oboes available for the finale (see below). The three-part cadenza is freshly composed: a strict canon built from the sighing chromatic motif previously heard that combines with the main theme of the movement in invertible counterpoint.

The string quartet fragment in A major, KV Anh. 72 (464a), cast in a sonata-rondo form eminently suited to a final movement (such as that to the Sinfonia Concertante for violin and viola, KV 364), breaks off at b. 170, about 19 bars into what would have been a substantial development section with pronounced chromatic tendencies. The completion in this case required continuing the development section in this vein, recapitulating the original rondo material in the standard order (beginning in the subdominant, as in KV 364), and devising a coda both concerto-like in character and flavoured by the chromaticism of the development section. Lastly, the whole had to be re-scored for the instrumentation available from the first two movements, viz. two flutes and two oboes, two horns, and strings, besides the reduction of string quartet to string trio for the solo parts. (Such selective use of the woodwind tutti was not uncommon in eighteenth-century orchestral works, e.g. Franz Josef Haydn’s Symphony No. 72, where the flute, two oboes, bassoon, and four horns all play only in the first and fourth movements, the flute alone plays in the second movement, and only the oboes, bassoon, and horns in the third movement.)

However, the fragment on which the finale is based is a somewhat more ‘advanced’ composition than that of the first movement. Research dates it to the end of 1784 or January 1785, a five-year discrepancy. In retrospect this justifies the compositionally more ‘advanced’ features of the first two movements as they were adapted for this completion, in particular the development section of the opening Allegro and both cadenzas. Nevertheless there is a Mozartean precedent for such a conjunction and adaptation of disparately conceived movements: the late piano sonata in F is made up of the Allegro and Andante, KV 533, from 1788 and the Rondo in F, KV 494, from 1786. In that instance it was the finale that was the least ‘advanced’ movement, and therefore Mozart had to add to it a contrapuntal coda of 26 bars when converting it into a sonata finale“, afirma finalmente el compositor británico Jeffrey Ching.

World Premiere – W.A. Mozart reconstr. Jeffrey Ching: Sinfonia Concertante in A

Toda la Música | Estreno mundial en Dresde de una Sinfonía concertante inconclusa de Mozart

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